There is hope even amid multiple crises – our latest report shows over 1 million people were supported through our work
2022 WAS A YEAR OF CRISES that shook and challenged our worldview and affected us on many levels, perhaps more deeply than anything else ever before.
Crises always lead to a great deal of suffering, and no matter the causes, and no matter where in the world we are, we all feel the impact.
People are starting to question the rules we play by. Long-simmering discontent is boiling over. The world is changing; but listening to discussions – not only between experts, but also ordinary Finns – I believe it is changing for good.
For Finn Church Aid, 2022 was a year of changes. Just a few years earlier, we had discontinued our European operations, thinking our work there was done. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine on 24 February 2022 changed everything overnight, and for much longer than we anticipated.
Thanks to unprecedented support from Finnish people, Finn Church Aid was able to quickly mobilise programme work in the country. In no time at all, a country office and one of our organisation’s biggest aid programmes were up and running.
Despite their own sense of shock and disbelief, people wanted to help. Individuals, businesses, churches and public authorities were ready and willing to give money and their time to support people in Ukraine.
By the end of February 2023, our partner Hungarian Interchurch Aid (HIA) reached 275,860 people in the humanitarian response supported by FCA. Our country office’s work focused mainly on education and reached 18,400 people in Ukraine already in 2022.
What happens in Ukraine also has repercussions for our activities elsewhere, including in Africa. The Horn of Africa is facing its worst drought in decades and our local employees, particularly in Kenya and Somalia, are fighting it on a daily basis.
Cereals from Ukraine used to be a major part of the region’s food security, but the war stopped grain shipments, causing an acute food crisis and rapid inflation in a region suffering from various challenges.
Meanwhile, our efforts to build long-term development cooperation are hampered by the ruling military junta in Myanmar, the earthquake in Turkey and Syria, and the impacts of the climate crisis.
What this shows us above all, is that the work of Finn Church Aid is still needed. We can alleviate suffering and offer a ray of hope for many in times of despair.
In addition to the very tangible crises caused by war and disasters, we are facing a global political crisis. In times of crises, it is easy to withdraw mentally and physically; this is a natural protective mechanism and how we instinctively react to danger.
But in today’s world, no one can make it alone – this is what the crises mentioned above have shown us. We need others. We must learn to work together.
At its essence, this involves recognising the needs of others and acting for the common good – within and beyond Finland’s borders.
It is fair to ask if there is hope left in this world? To answer that, I want to bring your attention to things we can do with your support.
We can help children and youth go to school and learn, we can provide water to those who are thirsty and food to those who are hungry, we can offer asylum for refugees and strive for those who have no livelihood.
In all crises, human response is of key importance. With the support of our donors, we supported over one million beneficiaries in 2022. We have been able to empower people living amidst crises to take action to improve their lives.
Extreme weather continues to affect Somalia – FCA grants additional funding for its humanitarian aid operation
FCA granted 200,000 euros of additional funding from its disaster fund to ease the crisis created by the prolonged drought in Somalia.
SOMALIA AND the entire Horn of Africa region have suffered from a severe drought for almost three years after five rainy seasons failed to materialise. In 2022 Somalia was also threatened by famine due to the ongoing drought. The hunger crisis killed 43,000 people in Somalia last year alone. About half of the dead were children under the age of five.
At the beginning of 2023, some parts of Somalia were hit by another form of extreme weather – experiencing heavy rains and flooding.
“The whole of Somalia has been suffering from prolonged drought and its effects for a long time. Unfortunately, the recent rains have been so violent that they have caused floods, which damage habitat and livelihoods, especially in the Gedo area,” says FCA’s Somalia country manager Ikali Karvinen.
Cash assistance replaces livelihoods lost through drought
“With the help of the new funding granted by the Disaster Fund, we will be able to respond to the suffering on the Somaliland side as well. The purpose of emergency aid is to help meet the basic everyday needs of families in the midst of a humanitarian crisis.”
The assistance covers 600 of the most vunerable families – that amounts to about 3,600 people in the Burao and Togdheer regions of Somaliland. FCA distributes cash assistance to families for a total of three months. The cash allowance corresponds to approximately 74 euros per month. It allows families to obtain vital supplies such as food and water.
In addition, a total of 50 people in the region, who participate in business mentoring training organised by FCA, will receive assistance. The target of the project is particularly women and disabled people who have lost their existing small businesses due to the drought.
Drought and violent terrorism have driven millions of Somalis to be internal refugees
In Somalia, famine threatens around 4–6 million people. According to UN estimates, about half of Somalis need humanitarian aid due to drought and conflicts. As many as 8 million people do not have access to clean water. Added to that, acute malnutrition, cholera and measles are also spreading in the country.
Drought and violent terrorism have driven millions of Somalis to be internal refugees. The movement of millions of people from one place to another in a country where living conditions are already poor increases the risk of internal conflicts in the country. In addition, the war in Ukraine has increased the price of food and worsened inflation in Somalia.
The UN recently estimated that the drought would lead to up to 135 deaths per day in Somalia between January and June. It is feared that the situation will deteriorate to as bad as in 2011, when more than 260,000 people died of starvation, half of them children. The last bad drought period hit Somalia in 2016–2017. A fast and robust global response led to lives being saved. This time, however, global funding has significantly fallen short.
FCA has granted approximately 580,000 euros from its disaster fund to alleviate the humanitarian crisis caused by climate change in Somalia during the past two years.
More information: FCA Somalia Country Director, Ikali Karvinen ikali.karvinen(at)kua.fi
FCA International Communications Manager, Ruth Owen ruth.owen(at)kua.fi
When your whole fortune dries up. The two-year drought has taken everything from the pastoralists of northern Kenya
East Africa is struggling through an unprecedented drought. Since October 2020, four consecutive rainy seasons have failed, and the fifth seems to fail as well. In northern Kenya, the nomadic population has lost all of their property, meaning cattle, which has traditionally been by far the most popular investment in the region. The situation can be compared to a total collapse of the stock exchange in Finland. Lives are in danger, too.
SHEDO ISACKO ROBA, 25, started her journey to the nearest borehole with her friends yesterday. The distance is approximately 40 kilometres, and the young woman, familiar with the conditions of the journey, covers it in a couple of days. There is no water in Shedo Isacko’s home village, Gareru in the north of Kenya.
Shedo Isacko knows how much hardship the failure of the rainy seasons causes in the lives of the locals.
“For the past two years I’ve come here to get water and look for food for my children,” she says whilst washing her laundry at the well.
The clothes are so covered in sand dust that the water instantly turns brown, and they need to be rinsed several times.
After finishing her load of laundry, Shedo Isacko fills up her worn-out yellow plastic jugs with water and ties them on a donkey’s back for the way home. 40 litres of water is enough for a family of five for two days, but due to the drought, Isacko can’t find enough food.
“We share what we can get between us. Sometimes we have food, sometimes we don’t. Life is tough.”
The cattle perish first – then the people
Isacko’s family lives a nomadic life, just like most people in the region. The drought has killed most of the family’s livestock. Shedo Isacko mourns not only for the lost property but also for what’s ahead.
“I’m afraid there will be no more rain. When the cattle have already died as a result of drought, we’ll soon be losing human lives. That’s what scares me.”
According to official figures, by the beginning of November no-one has died directly due to the ongoing drought or food shortage. In neighbouring Somalia, the situation is several steps ahead: based on a UN report, thousands of people had died by mid-October and half a million people are at risk of death. In the Marsabit region in northern Kenya, health officials are extremely concerned about the direction of development.
“At the moment, the deaths in the region aren’t directly caused by malnutrition, but they are strongly linked. Many deaths, particularly among the elderly, are caused by illnesses that hit undernourished people,” says Bokayo Arero, the director of nutrition at the Marsabit health department.
The pastoralists of Marsabit in Northern Kenya are severely affected by the droughts. Since the drought began in 2020 the working water supplies are further and further away, and a lot of livestock has died from lack of food and water. Photo: Björn Udd / FCA
Undernourished people are more likely to contract pneumonia, diarrhoea, and tuberculosis. The elderly, children, pregnant women, and disabled people are in a particularly vulnerable position. According to a health screening conducted in October, 92 percent of the surveyed children under the age of five in Marsabit were malnourished, and approximately half of them had received urgent treatment.
Especially in the case of children, malnutrition leads to serious, life-long consequences.
“Both physical and mental development suffer from malnutrition,” Bokayo Arero emphasises.
Food shortage also puts people under mental strain. Those whose entire property dries up can suffer from mental health issues.
“The population here is completely dependent on their livestock. There have even been a few reports of suicides being committed, when people notice that they have nothing left,” notes Bokay Arero.
Hungry children have trouble learning
The drought and the resulting food shortage have an impact on schooling, too. A few dried-up trees stand in the schoolyard of the Boru Haro village school, and the most energetic of the children are playing in the shade. The rest of the pupils sit and rest under the roofs of the building.
The principal Wako Salesa Dambi says that the drought and lack of food make children stay home instead of coming to school. The pupils who do come to school tend to be tired, and staying focused in class can be difficult.
“Even just for the sake of humanity, I think it’s important that the basic needs of the pupils are met. If their tummies are full, they listen, learn, and do their homework,” Wako Salesa points out.
Previously the state supported school lunches, but currently there’s no support available. After the elections in August, the resources are scarce, as the resulting transfer of power has brought financial transactions between the state and the local government almost to a standstill.
A school lunch is an important meal for children and a reason to come to school for many. Particularly younger students are likely to stay at home, if they haven’t had anything to eat the night before.
12-year-old George Guyo has returned to school after being absent for 10 days. Now he sits in the front row learning how to read a clock.
“My parents haven’t got money for food, so I can’t come to school. When I don’t get enough food, my health gets worse.”
George Guyo can clearly tell how hunger makes it more difficult to go to school, and his learning results deteriorate.
“When I’m hungry, I think about food all the time, and I can’t focus in class.”
“My biggest wish is that there would be enough food for us children and that we’d be able to maintain a balanced diet.”
In December in Kenya, a national exam will be held to students finishing primary school. The result of the exam determines which secondary school the pupil will continue in. Wako Salesa fears that the results will be negatively impacted by the food shortage.
“Getting a good exam result will be difficult for the children who’ve had to skip breakfast and lunch. It would be great if we could offer food for the pupils, but it seems impossible. The parents are currently so poor that they can’t afford to pack a lunch for their kids,” says Wako Salesa.
“This two-year drought is completely exceptional”
One of the main reasons to the poverty in the region is that the majority of cattle has either died or in such a dire shape that it’s lost its value. Previously, a cow would be sold for 20 000 Kenyan shillings, or approximately 160 euros. Now, a cow is worth as little as 500 shillings, or four euros, as the livestock is in bad condition and many people are simultaneously trying to sell their animals to the butcher.
Locally, the situation is comparable to a total market crash. Traditionally, the nomadic population has invested its entire wealth in livestock.
50-year-old Elema Gufu Sharamu has, in his words, been a nomad since he was born. He has brought his caravan of camels to drink from the well repaired by Finn Church Aid. He used to have plenty of cows and goats, but most of them have died because of the food shortage caused by the drought.
“There have been dry periods previously, but this two-year drought is completely exceptional. The circumstances have led to grass not growing, and there’s nothing for the animals to eat.”
As a nomad, Elema Gufu is used to being on the move. It takes him eight hours to walk to the nearest bore well.
“This well is really important to us. If it didn’t exist, we’d have to travel even further.”
Sharamu’s family comprises of two wives and nine children. He used to be able to easily provide for them all, but the situation has changed.
“I take cattle to the market and sell it there, but the prices have dropped dramatically. I haven’t got enough money for food, and sometimes we must skip lunch. It feels bad not to have enough food for my family.”
Currently Elema Gufu Sharamu borrows food from his neighbours, which isn’t a sustainable solution. He’s afraid for his family.
“If this drought continues and the rest of my cattle dies, we too will die. I have no other option. I can’t read, and I won’t be able to get another job. There’s nothing for me in the city.”
The health officials of Marsabit have noticed that parts of the population are drifting towards towns and cities. The director of health Bokayo Arero deems this problematic.
“I don’t think it’s a good survival mechanism. There really isn’t enough work for even those who already live near the cities. Now, an entire family might move to live with a young man working a day job at a construction site. A single income simply isn’t sufficient.”
Conflicts in the area escalate
However, sometimes circumstances force people to move close to population centres. In Marsabit, there are tensions between tribes that every now and then spew out for various reasons. A year ago, the home of Biftu Boroyani’s family was burned in clashes. The family of four used to live in a house of their own, had a small allotment that provided them with enough food, and a few goats.
“When I lived there, I was able to live in peace. I felt no stress. We used to make a good living from our plot.”
Now the family has had to come up with new ways to make a living. Biftu Boroyani’s husband is working in construction. When they have enough food at home, Biftu cooks a larger batch at once and sells it to the nearby construction workers.
“Recently it’s been difficult for both of us to find work opportunities. Because of the drought and lack of money few people are building right now, so making money is hard.”
Because of the difficult situation, Biftu Boroyani used to be able to offer food for the family only once a day. She was stressed out when she noticed how hunger made her children too tired to play.
Now the Boroyani family has received a cash allowance from Finn Church Aid. The 74-euro allowance is given in three consecutive months directly to a mobile phone in mobile money. Biftu Boroyani has received the first instalment, which she spent on food and school fees. Although food is scarce, Biftu Boroyani thinks that the children’s education is at least just as important.
“If the children get a good education, they can get a good job and then support us later. That’s why I make sure the school fees are covered.”
Although the first part of the allowance was spent on food and education, Biftu hopes to be able to use the coming instalments on establishing a small business. She’s planning on buying basic supplies from the city and then selling them near her home.
However, Biftu is still scared that the drought will drag on.
“I can only pray for the rain to come.”
Text and photos: Björn Udd
The prolonged drought in Northern Kenya has resulted in a lack of access to water. Here a group of women were washing their clothes at a borehole in October. Goats are better equipped to deal with drought and lake of grazing opportunities than cattle, but even the goats have started to perish now. Kuva: Björn Udd / FCA
Tired feet tell a story of hunger and despair in drought-affected Somalia
The Baidoa internally displaced people’s camp in the South-Central of Somalia is over-crowded. Due to drought and conflict the population is expected to grow even faster in the coming months.
THOSE FEET. Those now muddy, and no doubt tired, feet haunt me even days after visiting the Baidoa internally displaced people’s (IDP) camp in the South-Central Somalia. Some of the people I met early November have travelled up to 120 kilometers by foot to escape drought and conflict affected areas to seek safety and simply find food. Somalia is on the brink of famine with half of the population facing extreme and even life-threatening food shortage.
The aim of my visit was to understand the current situation in Somalia’s IDP camps and the impact of drought on their lives, as well as to be able to compare the situation now to how the situation was in June during my last visit to Baidoa.
Frankly, it’s worse, and it is getting worse each week. It is now November, and it should be the rainy season. There have been some rains since Spring 2020, but that doesn’t mean the situation improves. On the contrary, limited rain can worsen conditions in IDP camps due to the potential contamination of water sources and the spread of disease like malaria. The situation has been unbearable for months now. However, the international funding has a major gap when it comes to humanitarian assistance to drought-affected Somalia and the rest of the Horn of Africa. There simply isn’t enough international will for funding now.
Additionally, the price of aid is rising as global inflation affects markets together with cuts to grain imports affected by the war in Ukraine. Somalia has been dependent on the Black Sea grain imports of about 90 per cent of grain used in the country. Prices have increased as much as 50 per cent in Baidoa. A lady running a small shop in the camp told me that now 500 g pasta is USD 0,60, 3 litres of cooking oil USD 7, a biscuit USD 0,10, potatoes one dollar per kilo. Transportation cost to town USD 2. We are all worried about inflation, even in Finland. The prices might not sound that bad, but we need to keep in mind: nearly 7 of 10 Somalis live in poverty, making Somalia one of the poorest countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.
So, the looming famine is a sum of many crises. People are fleeing to IDP camps like the one in Baidoa due to the conflict and drought. The group of ladies that I spoke with told me they do not expect to go back to their homes due to their livelihood as pastoralists disappearing, due to lack of rain and often their land being taken over by terrorist groups. It would be impossible to go back right now even if a proper rain was received.
The Baidoa camp is overcrowded, too. The influx of IDPs into Baidoa camp is about 30 000–40 000 people a month. Due to drought and conflict the population is expected to grow even faster in the coming months. Officials are worried about both security and health related issues. With so many people living in the overcrowded camp with a lack of proper hygiene, epidemics like cholera, chickenpox and measles are prone to spread uncontrollably.
Finally, the drought is dramatically affecting children. Children are in the most vulnerable position when it comes to acute malnutrition. It is children who are most likely to die during – and even now, before – the famine. A malnourished child is more likely to die because of cholera, malaria, diarrhoea – even a common cold – than a healthy, well fed child. I had an opportunity to observe ongoing treatments, including vaccinations, health assessment of children, and counselling, in the camp health center. I was told that malnutrition is an increasing problem and the clinic provides weekly observation and nutritional supplements. The clinic has already 500 patients per day (the population in the camp being 200 000).
The current crisis is not only one of immediate effect. It’s a crisis affecting the future, too. According to the Somalia education cluster, 70 per cent of the children in Somalia are currently out of school because of the drought. 250 schools are closed, and 720 000 school-aged children (45 per cent of them girls) are at risk of dropping out of school for good. Half of children in the IDP camps have no access to education. The schools inside IDP camps are overcrowded, too. My home country Finland is world famous for its education system, but how would a school in Finland survive if suddenly a school built for 400 students had an influx of 200 students on top of the 1000 students it had yesterday?
It’s not yet too late. We can still help. FCA has already been able, as one of the few NGOs in the Baidoa camp, to aid 700 households with emergency cash distributions. In the coming months we are helping 900 more, since we start also implementing our project in the drought affected region in Somaliland.