10+1 things about the future of food production
Some of us have enough food to waste, others have hardly any; and many do have food, but it isn’t sufficiently nutritious. We made a list of 10+1 things that affect the future of our food production.
1. There is plenty of food – in theory.
There is both hunger and overabundance in the world. Currently, the food that is produced globally would be enough for everyone, if only it were evenly distributed. Although there are immense differences between regions when it comes to resources for food production, in the grand scheme of things the problem lies not in insufficient food production but our dysfunctional and unfair food system.
2. Climate change forces us to rethink food production.
Climate change has led to extended droughts, longer and more intense storms, and other types of extreme weather, all of which affect farming and crops. Hence, both emission reduction and climate change adaptation are imperative. The food system in itself is a significant source of emissions, so we need to think carefully about the ways in which we can cut emissions in farming and logistics as well as food waste.
3. Conflicts lead to empty farms and plates.
The war in Ukraine has proven how many developing countries are dependent on the affordable grain produced in Ukraine and Russia. However, conflicts disrupt food production, deliveries and sales all over the world. When violence forces people to flee their homes, they often leave behind their farms and their means of livelihood. Climate change reduces resources, which will cause further conflicts in the future.
4. Unbalanced production is a threat to biodiversity.
Approximately two thirds of the world’s farmland are used to cultivate only nine plant species, although there are thousands of options to choose from. Intensive production depletes the soil and increases the risk of plant diseases and pests. A much better way is to vary between different strains and follow the principles of agroecology and sustainable development in food production.
5. Rising proces and inflation hit the middle classes.
The price of food and inflation have risen so high that, together with energy price rises, even the middle classes end up counting coins. The situation is a downright disaster for the poor, who were already living from hand to mouth. However, food corporations and their owners are getting richer. Some think that the situation should be changed through political means, for example by taxing extreme wealth and the immense profits of corporations; but this isn’t as straightforward as it might sound, as many food giants are multinational.
6. Food is supposed to nourish.
A key issue in the future of food production and the functionality of the food system is nutritional content: food must be healthy and nourishing. It makes zero sense to produce immense amounts of food items that are by no measure the best when it comes to nutrition. At the moment, unhealthy food is often cheaper than healthy alternatives. A better diet would not only make us healthier but it would also help reduce emissions.
7. Towards a plant-based diet?
Particularly in the industrialised world, people consume far too much meat and other animal products. Transitioning to a plant-based diet would help solve health problems, reduce emissions, and diversify the use of soil. However, vegetarian food might not be a suitable option in all situations. For nomads, for example, animal products might be the only source of protein.
8. We must end food waste.
According to the UN, almost half of fruit and vegetables produced globally end up in waste, as does approximately a third of all food. The amount of food waste and refuse equals hundreds of billions of euros every year. Although we’ll never do away with all food waste entirely, even small acts can help reduce it significantly from its current levels.
9. Support your local.
The Covid-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine have shown the dangers of being overly dependent on global value chains. Diverse and smaller-scale food production could improve food security for local populations, bring about opportunities to safeguard biodiversity, as well as offer local communities ways to make a living.
10. Innovations and technologies exist already.
To respond to the challenges in food production we don’t need disruptive technologies or entirely new methods, as a wide range of practical measures is already at our disposal. Instead of future technologies, we can look at the past and learn from the ways previous generations used in cultivating land. An agroecological approach helps improve the resilience of communities and supports local farmers.
+1: FCA Supporst livelihoods with cash allowances.
In many places there is food available, but the prices have risen beyond what the poorest can afford. Finn Church Aid helps those struggling with food security by, for example, offering cash allowances that families can use to purchase food. FCA also supports education and independent livelihoods with entrepreneurship training.
Interviewees and sources: human advocacy advisor Merja Färm at Finn Church Aid, research manager and senior scientist Mila Sell at Natural Resources Institute Finland, FAO reports Thinking about the future of food safety and The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture, Oxfam report Fixing Our Food: Debunking 10 myths about the global food system and what drives hunger, and Global Food Policy -reports by CGIAR.
Text: Anne Salomäki
Illustration: Carla Ladau